A good microphone for the operatic voice

Sennheiser MK4 Large Diaphragm Microphone

Use your own brain. Do not depend on your teacher.

Dame Nellie Melba – Melba Method, 1926

Since I begun my project in April to refresh my voice, affectionally named the “Lilli Lehmann Project”, I have recorded every note I have uttered. The recordings last for around one minute or so. These recordings give me time to think, time to micro-rest my voice and are essential for me because I am now teaching myself.

Until September, I recorded my voice using the iPhone built in microphone. However, I wanted to produce better recordings for my SoundCloud. The plan is to eventually buy a couple of Gefell M930 and Apogee duet but for now I am finding them difficult to source. Hence, I bought a Sennheiser MK4.

The Sennheiser MK4 Large Diaphragm Microphone, retailing for around USD300, is an excellent microphone for recording the operatic voice. The microphone plugs directly into an iPad or iPhone and uses free Apogee software downloadable from the app store. The software is a little temperamental on the iPhone 8 but works well on an old iPad.

Once the recording is made, it is easy to upload the recording to Dropbox and then SoundCloud.

SoundCloud is part of my project plan to aim for continual improvement over the next three years. I must say it is satisfying to make a new recording of an aria and, after comparison, acknowledge there has been improvement since the last recording was made. The old recording is then deleted.

I recommend this microphone. Here it is without any sound engineering.

Contrametric Rubato

The metronome is essential for the study of contrametric rubato.

This week I pondered over how unmusical my singing was sounding. I couldn’t understand what had gone so wrong…

Then, it dawned on me.

My tempi were wrong!

Thus, this week, I have made the metronome a part of everything I do.

This brings me to contrametric rubato.

I came across an interview by a pianist about contrametric rubato in the book Inside Early Music . The pianist said:

I very much believe in the left hand not knowing what the right hand does, and I try to do this in Mozart.

Bernard d. Sherman Inside Early Music, Conversations with Performers, page 309.

This statement reminded me that singing Mozart requires an in depth knowledge of Bel Canto. Bel Canto is not just about voice production – it is, amongst other things, also about style. And, I suspect, contrametric rubato plays a much bigger role in Bel Canto singing, not just of Mozart but later composers, than we of today realise.

In fact, I think the great singers we hear on the gramophone recordings perhaps understood contrametric rubato much better than we do today.

Let me give you a fun example.

Please take a listen to the wonderful Amelita Galli-Curci below. I think that what makes her version of “La Paloma” musical is her use of contrametric rubato. You can hear the steady accompaniment as she weaves around the tempo with her voice. Yes, sometimes she lands on the beat. However, often, she does not!

The splendid musicianship of Amelita Galli-Curci using contrametric rubato.

Fun Opera Warm Up of Three Octaves

Lilli Lehmann reminds us to never stop learning singing technique and new repertoire!!!

Overall, the purpose of this website is to document three years (2020 – 2023) of my studies to become a singing teacher. My rationale is that if I can’t sing to an acceptable standard then I should not become a singing teacher.

This post is a series of videos that demonstrate how I warmed the voice up yesterday from a F below middle C to a F above top C and then ran through the cadenza from Lucia Mad Scene.

This post follows up my last post about adapting Denes Striny’s exercises for myself. I have found his books to be groundbreaking because he explained how to achieve the head voice in a really fun way. In addition, I found his exercises provided me with a “basecamp”. This “basecamp” has given me confidence because it provides me with a point of reference.

High notes are in everyone’s voice. These videos below are proof of that because I have never bothered with high notes about top C before and I am old – a young person should have no trouble!

Below are videos, recorded on my iPhone, of how I used the exercises in the Denes Striny book to warm up yesterday. Please read his books because I change things a bit. Also, these demos of mine are not perfect! There are a lot of mistakes. However, they head in the right direction and encourage the high notes out without any manipulation.

How I start the day practice at the moment
Gradually I bring the voice upwards and have fun with the exercise
When I stop it is because the a vowel fell out of line and didn’t sound the same colour as the others. There is no right or wrong a vowel but this one was just too difficult. The vowels down low begin to lose their correct sound. There is room for improvement.
This exercise gradually extends the voice upwards. The next video will take the voice up to a top F.
As I do this exercise I am learning to recorgnise the sensations and how to feed the right amount of air through.
After doing the above, I then sang this. Not every note is correct but overall it is heading in the right direction. I think the guitar was tuned to 440HZ in this video. Normally I tune it to 432HZ.

Adapting Denes Striny’s exercises

Learning advanced singing for free – see my resources page

Exactly a year ago I read and followed Denes Striny’s ideas and exercises (see my resources page for details about his wonderful books). This began my journey back to the way I had been taught by my teachers’ Beatrice Webster and Isabel Cunningham. It also led to me creating a three year project for myself that I have affectionately titled ‘The Lilli Lehmann Project’ (please see my Lilli Lehmann page for details about the resources this great artist created for us to learn from).

My last post explained the vocal lineage of my teachers and the abundant resources available to us on the internet from this vocal lineage. I explained that these resources, suitable for advanced singers, are available for free on the internet (see the blog post “Learning advanced singing for free”).

My teachers always told me to make an exercise into music. The late Daphne Collins, a colleague and bel canto singer, knew instinctively how to do this. I learnt a lot by listening to her when I was in my late teens. Every note was music. Therefore, in essence, in these recordings, made on my iPhone, I am taking the exercises and having fun with them. I am not doing exactly what Striny said or my teachers said. The iPhone compresses sound but you may still get a sense that I am using a constant messa di voce, not just on a phrase, but also single notes. I have also added staccato and trills.

These exercises are how I begun my singing practice today. I am often using ‘i’ either by making a grace note from ‘i’ or thinking ‘i’. The reason is that the sound needs an ‘East to West’, to use Isabel’s words. Without this ‘East to West’ the sound is 2 dimensional. My voice is dark and I have to be very careful to balance the darkness with ‘e’ or ‘i’.

Below are my examples. Any mistakes in the interpretation of the books I read and my teachers’ words are solely my own. Please refer to Denes Striny’s books just in case I have not interpreted his words properly!

U a o – thinking i and using a grace note to help sometimes
Here is ‘You love our home’. I am dwelling again on the ‘i’ sound. I think it is a tad dark here but I like the ‘whirling currents’ (to use Lilli Lehmann’s words)
Here is an example of me having fun with an exercise I do every day. (See the technique page for details). I am adding in messa di voce here too for a challenge.
Having fun and putting in challenges.

Going from the Denes Striny warm up to an aria…

Finally, here is the use of the word ‘piu’ to warm up the aria ‘Ah, non credea’. The p is similar to a b and is great to achieve a light character. The i and u are great vowels to get a balanced sound. The u creates a depth and the i adds height. I have a dark voice so I need to concentrate on i and e vowels as well as singing on the upper edge of the note. When I warm up I would rather be sharp than a dark muddy mess.

Using ‘piu’. Also, using rubato and messa di voce. The iPhone doesn’t show it as well but there is a big dynamic range here.

Ah, non credea by Bellini

Here is an example of how I go from these exercises to an aria. Here is ah, non credea rehearsal with my clumsy guitar playing. I am thrilled with the top notes. The iPhone recording doesn’t show it but the last note was a crescendo and then diminuendo to pianissimo. I was getting glitches on the high soft singing but now I am keeping a raised palette and ‘East to West’ feel and the glitches are virtually gone.

Ah, non credea
My enjoyment of singing has increased tenfold since reading Denes Striny’s book ‘Head First’

Learning advanced singing for free


Recently, I traced my singing lineage back to Niccola Antonia Porpora who lived from 1686-1766. The lineage goes like this. One of Porpora’s students was Giovanni Ansani. Ansani taught Manuel Garcia I. Garcia I taught Pauline Viardot. Viardot taught Anna Schoen-René. Schoen-René taught Lucie Manén. Manén taught my teacher, Beatrice Webster. Beatrice Webster also taught Isabel Cunningham who took me through my masters.

Fortunately, many singing teachers from this lineage have written singing books or memoirs. These writings are available for free on the internet. (I am not sure if Ansani wrote singing books but Domenico Corri and Isaac Nathan fill that gap wonderfully).

These writings are assisting me to rebuild/advance my singing technique in order to sing coloratura arias from the 19th Century. Coloratura arias from the 19th Century are a great way to rebuild technique, advance technique and refresh the voice. Most of this repertoire is available for free. 

Early Gramophone recordings also incredible teachers, also available on the internet for free. Imitation is an excellent way to learn advanced opera singing techniques but only if one is trained in music, only if one is imitating an excellent performer and only if one realises that anybody can sing that way. In other words, the voice is not the problem. The technique is.

My focus currently is on top notes. I want to work my way up to a top F at 440HZ. Effortless top notes can only be achieved by the study of the Old Italian School. Amelita Galli-Curci is possibly my favourite soprano for top notes along with the wonderful Dame Kiri Te Kanawa. I also adore La Stupenda. I love watching her sing and am trying to imitate her ‘ventriloquist’ style of singing. (Dame Kiri is perfect at this too and I have no doubt Galli-Curci would have demonstrated this if we had a video of her today!). Watching La Stupenda on You Tube is free.

Below is an example of the progress I am making on Una Voce Poco Fa – all made by using free resources. The top notes are appearing in the head voice without comprising a rich middle and the chest voices on the low notes. Sometimes they are a little too tentative (better that than shrieking) and sometimes I miss them. The reason? The approaching notes are out of tune. Top notes can only be achieved if every note before is perfectly in tune. Galli-Curci sings, on the recordings, perfectly in tune.

It is painstaking work to record oneself on the iPhone and then listen back to work out where the problem was but, on the bright side, making a recording of ourselves is another great teacher available to us – and it is free. Every note I utter now is recorded and critiqued. An advantage of recording everything and listening back in 3 minute sessions is to provide constant micro-rest throughout a day’s practice. Another advantage is these recordings can be sent to a colleague for peer review. This is also free. We should all help each other. Lilli Lehmann recommended this in her book ‘How to Sing’.

Another great teacher is the subconscious. My plan is to learn Una Voce Poco Fa and then put it down for a month. Recently, I picked up ‘O luce di quest’anima’ after a month’s rest. It had improved by allowing time for the subconscious to work. It is now ready for me to add more difficult cadenzas and to try to imitate Tettrazini’s show off top notes in the repeat passage (a little un-musical but very showy). The subconscious is free.

This brings me to the point of today’s blog. The best singing teachers for an advanced operatic singer are free.

Recording made on iPhone of progress on top notes.
Recording made on iPhone of progress on top notes.


Today’s post is written to mark the first turning point in my three year ‘Lilli Lehmann Project’. To reiterate, the Project is created to refresh my voice and engage with historical vocal pedagogy with the aim to become a responsible singing teacher. Today’s turning point, coming four months into the project, is to focus on efficiency. Efficiency to me means that, if I am to train myself to sing full coloratura roles, which I believe will be the test as to my understanding, or otherwise, of the Old Italian School of Singing, I must avoid wasting energy.

This is quite a different focus for me because, until now, I have been focussed on sound. Sound, of course, is (nearly) everything. In a recent Tumblr post, I quoted Isaac Nathan (pupil of Corri, who was, in turn, the pupil of Porpora) who told a wonderful story about a certain Signora Grassini. According to Nathan, she was wonderful when she sung only seven notes but when she extended the compass of her voice, to two octaves, she lost the sound quality and fell out of favour with the public!

For the past four months, I have concentrated on reading and applying Old Italian School of Singing/Bel Canto literature. This literature is primarily focussed on technique. Technique and Art, to remind us of Lilli Lehmann’s words, go hand in hand. There is a great deal of work to do over the next two and a half years, but the first steps are in the right direction. However, there are more than one way to skin a cat, depending on the psychology of the pupil. Here, the pupil is myself. Therefore, I can easily analyse that if I look at singing from a different angle then I may be able to solve lingering problems once and for all.

Therefore, today, and for the next few months, I am changing my priority. I will prioritise efficiency. Fortunately, the Masters of the Old Italian School of Singing were/are experts in efficiency. This is why a properly trained singer of this school of singing can sing for extraordinarily long periods of time, use the full compass of their voice range, engage a range of expressive techniques such as messa di voce, mezza voce, voice characters and the like, and, have a long singing career. Singers like Lehmann, Sutherland, Te Kanawa, Pavarotti and Dawson have had extraordinarily long careers. As Denes Striny says, it is how they sung.

An example of how my singing wastes energy is the tendency to scoop. Scooping can be obvious, but, more often than not, in my case, it is subtle. Accordingly, I am using my iPhone to record every note I utter. I critique every note. Often it may be that the voiced consonant is slightly flat. To combat the stubborn voiced consonants, I am engaging the use of a grace note and then repeating the note three times without the grace and then the phrase three times until it the errant note is contained. Sometimes, I have ignored one note in the pattern. (I must then make an enormous effort to correct the following notes). Sometimes, one wrong note, many notes prior to the top note, causes the top note to fail. My top A is constantly flat. It took a while to notice but the great thing about coloratura singing is that it is unforgiving. Eventually, I could not ignore that the constantly flat top A was causing my top notes to fail. Fix the A and the top C/D/E takes care of itself!

In the end, inefficiency can be attributed to bad technique. Or worse still, if a singer knows technique, then it is simply sloppiness. Therefore, a focus on efficiency, means I must focus on 100% accuracy rather than thinking that I can ‘get away with’ producing a ‘nice enough’ sound.

The great singers were masters of efficiency. One has only to compare a lesser singer with La Stupenda. Dame Joan Sutherland lightened her voice quality yet it was beautiful. Her mouth was her pharynx (to use the words of Garcia). She expressed with her voice, not her body and extraneous body movements. And the result? We all know! The lesser singer, of which I am one, will engage in all sorts of contortions, whether it be an extraneous body movement, opening the mouth too wide or scooping.

Another singer who is efficient is Amelita Galli-Curci. Luckily we have superb recordings of her singing. Archive.org has recordings of Galli-Curci that are freely available on the internet and slightly better for our purposes than listening to Spotify.

The third Lockdown Concert, to be recorded on my iPhone and uploaded to this website, will focus on efficiency. In the meantime, I will be uploading little snippets on Instagram when I feel confident an efficiency has been achieved. I did this yesterday by recording a little snippet of Estrellita. Estrellita is a simple little song but my change of focus when I learnt the song was different. In essence, I made sure I was 100% accurate with the intonation before thinking of dynamics or anything else.

My reserved conclusion is that a change of focus, for me at any rate, away from sound and to efficiency will address lingering problems with my singing whilst improving, inevitably, the quality and sustainability of my singing. Today’s professional classical singers must be good musicians and sing sustainably. Hopefully, the next few months will sow the seed for insights I can share with pupils in times to come!

100% efficiency!

High Notes

…there is almost no limit to the height that can be reached by the pure head tone without admixture of palatal resonance.

Lilli Lehmann, How to Sing.

…the whole secret of both [extension of the compass and equalization of the registers] consists in the proper raising and lowering of the soft palate, and the pillars of the fauces connected with it.

Lilli Lehmann, How to Sing

Over the next three years (2020-2023), I have created a project for myself called the “Lilli Lehmann Project”. This project aims to refresh my voice and brain to prepare myself for teaching. The whole point of the three years is that I believe that in order to teach responsibly, I must be able to actually do it myself!

The first stage of the project is to learn bel canto repertoire, in particular coloratura. Coloratura repertoire demands, amongst many other things, secure high notes because the arias often end with a high note.

Today’s post discusses my thoughts about high notes.

First, here is short audio file where I am rehearsing the high notes at the end of Caro Nome.

Developing high notes.

In this audio file, I focussed very much on increasing the nasality in the notes before singing the notes above top C. I also increasingly thought of [e].

As soon as the head tones come into consideration, one should never attempt to sing an open ah, because on ah the tongue lies flattest. One should think of an ā, and in the highest range even an ē; should mix the ā and ē with the ah, and thereby produce a position of the tongue and soft palate that makes the path clear for the introduction on the breath into the cavities of the head.

Lilli Lehmann, How to Sing.

In addition to thinking [e], I watched Dame Joan Sutherland singing high notes. Imitating her mouth position as it changes through the registers. Once I reached the C# I positioned my mouth ready for a wide opening on the Eb.

Dame Joan Sutherland.

Here is a picture of Maria Callas laughing. This is a good example of the mouth shape for high notes.

Maria Callas

In addition, to the above, there was one more thing I did. This was to extend my neck upwards. In the following video, the Italian bel canto singing teacher, Capucine Chiaudani, explains why this is important.

Capucine Chiaudani

Tips for Cherubino’s Aria “Voi Che Sapete” – follow up

This is a follow up post to my earlier post on Cherubino’s aria. Here are three versions of Cherubino’s aria sung at 421HZ. The first version is too dark. I pressed down on the sound. It was tiring and uncomfortable. The second version isn’t as dark but I have another problem – you can see my mouth is moving too much. There is also a trace of tension. Accordingly, the language is distorted.

I decided the most efficient way to fix this was to listen to Herman Klein’s Phono-Vocal Method and sing a Solfeggio. I did this for ten minutes or so and then recorded the third version. The third version is my preferred version. The only reservations I have is that it now needs other musicians to bring it to life and time to settle.

Version One – too dark

Version Two – mouth too wide and tense

Version Three – vowels in better alignment

Herman Klein’s Phono Vocal Method

Herman Klein’s method and these recordings are an excellent resource.

Gregorian Chant for Opera Singers

Wow, the closed Italian [u] – why Italian? – why did Gregorian chant, opera, and singing in a certain way seemingly start in Italy? Their language was the main reason, and of course, we must consider that because it started there, it started because of their language.

Denes Striny, Great Singers, An Endangered Species, How to Get Back to Mother Nature, Page 43

I could pose a similar question from a New Zealand perspective. Why are there so many stunning Pacific Island Opera Singers? Their language is the main reason.

Language for some of us Kiwis is a challenge. How do we train our mouths to speak like an Italian or a Pacific Islander or a native Te Reo speaker?

Here is one way. It is cheap, easy and will save you doing a three year Italian degree like I did.

Listen to Gregorian Chant!

This post contains a Gregorian playlist for listening while you take that daily walk. (You will need Spotify to access the entire track).

Language is my everyday struggle because I have a thick Kiwi accent with more than a hint of Aussie – could it get any worse – ha ha ha! Yes, it could. I love pop music which means I am often singing around the house in chest voice trying to be Beyonce!

Gregorian chant is the perfect remedy. The language is focussed on the [u] vowel, there is no chest voice, the vocal range is not taxing and the singers sing directly onto the note (no scooping).

Put your headphones on and have a go at imitating this. Imitation is training. Training your lips to feel the [u] shape and to maintain the [u] sensation in every other vowel.

Training, training, training! Training your ear. Training your muscles. Training, training, training!

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